Metabolic syndrome (MetS), also known as syndrome X and insulin resistance syndrome, was first described by Reaven in 1988 . To investigate the added value of elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and high high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in predicting new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in addition to the present metabolic syndrome (MetS) defining criteria. We followed 2,613 subjects from a rural Japanese community who participated in cardiovascular health examinations between 1990 and 1993. Thus, we estimated sex-specific prevalences of the metabolic syndrome according to the IDF, WHO, and NCEP definitions in the population-based KORA Survey 2000 (Augsburg, Southern Germany, 711 men and 662 women, age-group 55–74 years) (4). Using Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and Japanese diagnostic criteria for MetS, we analyzed 2366 people aged from 40 to 79 years (men, 1425 and women, 941) from the total participants. There was a trend towards a decline in the proportion of individuals with increased blood pressure (P = 0.0978), and the proportion of adults with increased fasting plasma glucose (FPG) increased (P < 0.0001). All participants gave informed consent prior to the survey.
In women, high triglyceride levels predicted lower all-cause mortality (HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47–0.95), whereas low HDL cholesterol predicted higher all-cause (HR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.15–2.24) and CV (HR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.05–5.67) mortality. This study enrolled 4,657 subjects (1,404 fathers, 1,404 mothers, 957 sons, and 892 daughters; Supplementary Fig. In addition, serum testosterone levels were significantly lower in ED patients with MS (p = 0.002). Fasting blood samples were obtained by venipuncture in the early morning and all assessments were performed in the clinical laboratory at the hospitals. In the present study, we provide the first estimate of the prevalence of the MS among healthy periadolescents in Greece using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The findings will help guide future interventions to reduce metabolic risks in the target population. Our results also indicate that MS is associated with a lower testosterone level in patients with ED.