Studies suggest that smoking may be a risk factor for the development of microvascular complications such as diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). “Hookah bars,” where one can order a hookah with flavored tobacco (often referred to as shisha or nargileh) in a social setting, can be found in most cities. Japanese Seven Star cigarettes (each containing 1.2 mg nicotine) were used for the test. A total of 2,629 Mexican Americans form the basis of this study, and 1,136 non-Hispanic whites from the same cohort served as the comparison group. Mimran et al. Moreover, an estimated 11.7% in men and 2.4% in women of the approximately 28 million diabetes cases can be accounted to smoking. Results As smoking increased, the rate of diabetes increased for both men and women.
Genetic variation refers to diversity in gene frequencies, and can refer to differences between individuals or to differences between populations. Age, male sex, lower BMI, smoking, and insulin use were associated with