Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes coronary heart, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular disease, is the leading cause of death in the United States and most developed countries, accounting for about 50% of all deaths. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. metabolic inflammation), a concept in which a low-grade chronic inflammatory state is associated with a “hostile” gene-environment interaction. 5. Oral disease remains a major public health burden worldwide. In South Asia, IHD and cerebrovascular disease rank 4th and 9th in the list of causes of YLL, while CKD ranks 25th. Two thirds of all new cases of diabetes are now in low and middle income countries such as China, India, Mexico, and Egypt.
Integration of these approaches within NCD programs could minimize the need for renal replacement therapy. This issue has yet to be solved. Prevention of CKD should be considered in planning