Statins have multiple effects (also known as pleiotropic effects) on inflammation, plaque stabilization, endothelial function, and hemostasis. DR was diagnosed on the basis of the modified Klein classification. Second, we determined the relationship between pulse pressure and its main determinant (i.e. Larger platelets are younger and exhibit more activity. The blood glucose level was measured by glucose oxidase method and HbA1c by calorimetrical method in the autoanalyser. It is not intended to be an all-inclusive list, so remember…..when dealing with medical professionals, don’t be embarrassed to ask about abbreviations, especially if they involve a medication or procedure. However, the overall results of the ADDITION study, including cohort analyses, suggest that earlier detection and treatment of diabetes is associated with net benefits.
An independent scientific committee revised and approved the study protocol and the information to be provided to the patients. Subjects’ written consent was obtained prior to their enrollment in the study. Multivariate analysis showed no association between MOPP and DR. The association, at baseline, between age and pulse pressure was dependent on the presence of diabetes (P interaction = 0.03) and on the mean arterial pressure (P interaction< 0.001) (i.e. our results showed significantly higher MPV in diabetic patients than in the nondiabetic subjects. Each patient was clinically examined at the time of initiation of the study. Hemoglobin (HEE-mo-glo-bin) is the part of a red blood cell that carries oxygen to the cells and sometimes joins with the glucose in the bloodstream.
Mean values were taken of the second and third blood pressure readings. Patients with systolic blood pressure ≤ 135 mm Hg and / or diastolic blood pressure ≤ 80 mm Hg were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements of body weight (kg) and height (m) were done. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using Quetlet's index. Biochemical analysis included fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and high density lipoproteins. Ultrasonography was performed with B-mode images of a high-resolution ultrasound scanner equipped with a 7 MHz linear array transducer. Anterior, antero-lateral, and postero-lateral projections were used to obtain images of the left and right common and internal carotid arteries.
GDM: Gestational diabetes mellitus, a type of diabetes that is found for the first time when a woman is pregnant and usually disappears upon delivery, but increases the mother’s risk of developing diabetes later in life. The average of three measurements of each cartotid artery diameter or IMT was taken; the coefficients of variation of these measurements ranged from 1.5 to 2.3%. The results are presented as absolute number, percent, median, range, and mean ± SD. The data have been analyzed by using unpaired, two-tailed Student’s t-test taking P ≤ 0.05 as the lowest limit of significance. Group II have significantly (P 0.05) increases in fasting serum triglycerides (215.1 ± 69, n = 29 vs 176 ± 105.4, n = 17), and significant (P < 0.05) decreases in high density lipoprotein (32.8 ± 7.2, n = 29 vs 39.9 ± 12.1, n = 17) than group I patients . No significant differences were observed between group I and II patients in their fasting plasma glucose levels (143.6 ± 13.5, n = 17 vs 143.8 ± 15.3, n = 29 respectively) . However, group II patients have significantly (P < 0.02) longer duration of T2DM (13.72 ± 4.8, n = 29 vs 10.52 ± 3.87, n = 17 respectively).
The number of smokers was higher in group II than in group I. A number of different gene mutations have been shown to cause MODY, all of which limit the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin. Mean common carotid IMTs (left, right, or both) but not internal carotid artery thicknesses were significantly greater in group II patients compared to group I patients . Group II had a significant number of patients with increased lesion IMT (≥ 1.1 mm) . As carotid IMT (a cut-off value of 0.75 mm reported by Holaj et al.) is considered to be a marker of generalized atherosclerosis, group II patients may be considered to be at risk for future cardiovascular events[7,19] as well as recurrent ischemic stroke. Carotid IMT is an independent, significant parameter for the prediction of significant coronary artery disease. Accordingly, our patients (group II) are at risk for cardiovascular events because their mean carotid IMT (left or right) is greater than 0.75 mm. Mohan et al. reported a higher IMT value (0.95 ± 0.31 mm) in diabetic patients than found in the present study. Possible explanations for this difference may be related to the limited sample size of the current study and the different ethnicity of the study subjects.
Moreover, group II was also found to have a significant number of patients with increased lesion IMTs who are also at risk for ischemic stroke. Liou et al. found that metabolic syndrome plays a crucial role in the development of recurrent stroke in diabetes patients with an odds ratio of 1.57. The smoking factor may also contribute to the greater IMT in group II. One of the limitations of the current study is the small sample size. We conclude that even in the absence of the blood pressure component, metabolic syndrome in T2DM patients is associated with greater carotid IMT values than in those free from metabolic syndrome. Further prospective studies are recommended to demonstrate the regression of carotid IMT with management of metabolic syndrome in T2DM patients. 14.
World Health organization. Definition, diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes mellitus and its complications: Report of a WHO consultation. Part i. diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Retrieved as. 2007. pp.