Stress hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are evolutionarily preserved responses that allow the host to survive during periods of severe stress . In type 2 diabetes we and others have recently provided evidence that alterations of the pro-inflammatory wnt5a/anti-inflammatory sFRP5 system are involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. This triggers the body’s release of pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e., cytokines or endotoxins such as tumor necrosis factor [TNF] and interleukin-1 [IL-1]) and anti-inflammatory mediators (i.e., leukotrienes, histamine, and serotonin) to control this overwhelming systemic infection. Dr. The glycocalyx is central in maintaining the oncotic gradient across the endothelial barrier. Someone with a healthy immune system is usually able to fight off these microbes with little effort. In one other study, the 2-year mortality rate after hospital discharge was 44.9 % among individuals surviving severe sepsis.
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