Each scale is scored by averaging the items completed within that scale, and the overall PACIC is scored by averaging scores across all 20 items. People with long-term conditions now account for about 50 per cent of all GP appointments, 64 per cent of all outpatient appointments and over 70 per cent of all inpatient bed days. A high prevalence rate of depressive and/or anxiety disorders was found in the total sample (29%) and in all three illness groups: type 2 diabetes (36%), other chronic illnesses (24%), and no chronic illness (31%). These concerns feature strongly in international experience [11, 18–20] and reflects experience in Australia too. These diseases need to be treated constantly. Diabetes in Ghana. We also determined a criterion-related validity using multinomial logistic regression to explore PACIC’s association with providers’ self-management support.
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